5 Types of Bipolar Disorder and What Causes Them

Types of Bipolar DisorderSome people often experience a drastic change in their mood and energy from the highest level to the lowest level and it's called Bipolar Disorder. According to WHO (World Health Organization), there are about 60 million people worldwide who have Bipolar Disorder, and according to Mental Health America, those who have bipolar disorder experience three symptoms, which are Depression, Mania, and Hypomania. Scientists often call the moment where they experience these symptoms as an episode.

What is Depression? Mania? Hypomania?

Depression is a condition where a person will experience deep sadness and anxiety. Other signs of depression are insomnia, loss appetite, a weaker body, hard to concentrate, and have a desire to end life by suicide.

Many Expressions - Types of Bipolar Disorder
Now you know what depression is, then what is Mania? Mania is a different mood condition than depression. A person with bipolar disorder who experiences mania has explosive energy, high euphoria, untired, and has an unusual & aggressive sexual desire. The difference between mania and hypomania lies in the length of this episode.

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Bipolar Disorder Symptoms and Signs

A person who has bipolar disorder will experience a great emotional feeling and that usually occurs in a certain period, known as "Mood Episode." Each mood episode shows a drastic change from the person's normal mood. An episode where the person looks too happy and excited is called a manic episode, whereas depressive episodes will show extreme sadness and loss of will. However, it is possible that a mixture of manic episodes and depressive episodes will occur in just one mood episode. This episode is called Mixed Episode, and it's very dangerous.

Bipolar Disorder sufferers will also be very irritable and angry without a clear intention in a mood episode. The mood swings are also usually accompanied by extreme changes related to the energy, activity, sleep patterns, and daily behavior.

Mixed Emotions - Types of Bipolar Disorder
During the manic episode, here are some signs and symptoms that can arise from bipolar disorder:

  • Feeling too happy and excited.
  • Very sensitive and easily offended.
  • Eat a lot.
  • Insomnia.
  • Be reckless and carry out risky activities.
  • Speak quickly and change the topic of conversation from one topic to another.
  • Having a decreased ability to make a judgment or make a decision.
  • See strange things and hear mysterious voices.

Whereas, in depressive episodes, here are some signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder:

  • Feeling very sad and losing hope in the long term.
  • Loss of interest in doing daily activities.
  • Eat less.
  • Feel sleepy and lazy.
  • Feeling too self-conscious and inferior.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Have suicidal thoughts.

The above episodes can occur several times a year or even every week. Please contact your doctor if you or someone you care about shows the symptoms we mentioned above.

Causes of Bipolar Disorder

What causes bipolar disorder? Until this article was published, the specific causes of bipolar disorder aren't clearly identified, but there were several factors that were known to cause symptoms of bipolar disorder. The factors that cause bipolar disorder are:

Brain Condition

Comparison Between Normal Brain and Bipolar OCD Depression Anxiety Brain

The brain can pass through various physical changes that affect the level of brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) in it. The transmitter is substances that affect your mood.

Genetic Factors

Your parents or other family members may have bipolar disorder that is inherited to you.

Influence of The Social Environment

Researchers have found that there may be several social factors that can cause bipolar disorder. These factors can be a feeling of stress in the event of a trauma in childhood, low self-confidence, or experiencing a tragic loss.

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5 Types of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder that experienced by some people doesn't only consist of one type but five types. What are those types of bipolar disorder?

Bipolar Disorder Type 1 

In this type 1 bipolar disorder, a person will experience one episode of mania. Someone with bipolar 1 disorder will also experience depression and hypomania. It's just that, hypomania will only last shorter and it's not too heavy. Those with this type of bipolar disorder do not need hospitalization.

Bipolar Disorder Type 2 

In this type 2 bipolar disorder, a person will experience severe episodes of depression and one episode of hypomania. They tend to have a longer depression period compared to people with bipolar disorder type 1.

Different Expressions in Bipolar Disorder - Types of Bipolar Disorder

Cyclothymic Disorder

People with the cyclothymic disorder will experience hypomania and depression episodes regularly. Compared to the previous two types of bipolar disorder, they experience mood swings that are not so extreme. However, if it's not treated immediately, this disorder can continue to develop and endanger the sufferer.

Rapid Cycling

Rapid Cycling is a term for someone who has experienced four (or more) episodes of hypomania, mania or depression within a period of 12 months. Which means, the mood's patient will change quickly.

Mixed Episode

Mixed Episode is one of the most dangerous bipolar disorder types. This can occur if a person experiences episodes of depression, hypomania, and mania simultaneously. Those who experience mixed episode will have a bigger risk of suicide.

These are the 5 types of Bipolar Disorder that are very risky and dangerous if it isn't treated well by a doctor immediately. Now, do you want to know some treatment options for bipolar disorder?

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Bipolar Disorder Treatment

There are some treatments for bipolar disorder but they can't cure it, instead, they can stabilize the mood swings. The suitable treatment for a patient will be determined by a psychiatrist (a doctor who specializes in mental disorders). Some treatments that can be given for bipolar disorder are:

Medicine Therapy

Medicine - Types of Bipolar Disorder
Your doctor can recommend certain prescriptions to stabilize your mood. This medicine can help to reduce the symptoms you may experience. You may be required to take prescription medicines for a long time to prevent a depressive episode that can increase your thoughts to commit suicide. These medicines are antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and anti-stress medicine.


Counseling to the Psychiatrist - Types of Bipolar Disorder
You may need to do counseling to discuss your condition and how to get through the episode of emotions that you experience. Look for a community or a psychiatrist that can help you to deal with bipolar disorder.

Treatment of Drug and Substance Abuse

If you suffer from an addiction to drugs and substances, it is very important for you to quit and beat this addiction, because the addiction to drugs or any other substances will make it difficult for you to relieve the bipolar disorder condition.

Hospital Care

In more severe cases, you will be required to be hospitalized for periodic supervision. This treatment especially occurs when you experience signs of wanting to commit suicide. At this level, you can hurt yourself or others.

Not all bipolar disorder situations are the same, so it is better to always discuss what you feel to the psychiatrist you trust. Do what you love and be cheerful every day!
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